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war of September-December/1920, ended with total collapse of the First Republic.
Facing Armenian armies defeated and half of Armenian territory occupied, the
government in Yerevan
was left with no other choice but begging the enemy for peace no matter how
harsh and humiliating its conditions could be. After short talks with the
Turkish command, the cease-fire agreement between Turkey
was concluded on November 18 1920.
Several days later, following the orders from Moscow and Baku, Armenian
communist groups started armed uprising in the towns of Dilijan
and Caravan-Seray in northern Armenia.
Following the orchestrated request for help sent by the rebels to the Soviet
government on November 28, 1920 and blaming Armenia
for the invasion of Sharur (20.11.1920) and Karabakh (21.11.1920) the 11th Red Army under
the command of Anatoliy Hekker,
crossed the demarcation line between Armenia and Soviet Azerbaijan.
From Armenian perspective, the troops of the First Republic
had legal right to invade Sharur due to the fact that
the «Soviet Socialist Republic of Naxcivan» proclaimed there on July 29 1920 under
Soviet-Turkish protection, was officially not a part of Soviet Russia or Soviet
Azerbaijan and could thus be considered as a breakaway part of Armenian
The situation in Karabakh was even
more complicated due to the fact that local Armenian warlords continued
guerilla warfare against the Soviets even after the cease-fire agreement was
signed on August 10 1920, by Armenia
and the Soviet Republics
of Russia and Azerbaijan
leaving Karabakh within Soviet Azerbaijan. Armenian
partisans of Karabakh were getting random support
but that support was of rather private than official nature.
The second Soviet-Armenian war
lasted only a week. Exhausted by the 6 years of permanent wars and conflicts,
Armenian army and population were incapable of any further active resistance.
Some desperate fight was taking place only in the areas where militia and army
units believed that they were facing the Azerbaijani coming to wipe out the
rest of Armenian population but they surrendered almost immediately after
realizing that they were fighting predominantly Russians. The government in Yerevan also realized that abandoned by most of her
Western allies, Armenia
had no chances for survival and had to choose between either Turkish or Soviet Russian domination. The final decision was made on
December 4 1920, in favor of Russia
when the 11th red Army was entering the capital.
This was the end of the First Republic.
Next morning, on November 30 1920, Armenian premier Simeon Vratsian
and the Soviet envoy Boris LeGrand transferred formal
power to the communist-dominated “Revolutionary Committee of Armenia”. Two days
later, the “Revolutionary Committee” declared Armenia
an “Independent Soviet Socialist