Andrew Andersen







Flag of Manchu Empire









Chinese Republican Flag (1912-1929)


In 1644 invaders from Manchuria captured Beijing and established new Manchu (Qing) dynasty that ruled China between 1644 and 1911.


In 17th-18th centuries he Manchu dynasty created a vast empire dominant in Asia that stretched far beyond the ethnic territory of China and Manchuria. It included Mongolia, Tibet, Ching-Hai, Xinqiang, Upper Burma, Taiwan, Korea and other countries and territories that were not always incorporated into Manchu-Chinese state proper but instead were ruled indirectly as dependencies and protectorates.


The 19th century as well as the beginning of the 20th century, were marked by the disintegration of the Manchu Empire.


Armed conflicts with Russia ended up with the treaties of Aigun (1858) and Beijing (1960) in accordance with which China was to give up half of Manchuria (modern Russian territories of Khabarovsk and Primorye) and north-western part of Xinqiang (Chinese Turkestan).


The expansion of Britain and Japan resulted in the loss of Upper Burma to British Indian Empire and Taiwan to Japan in 1886 an 1895,. China was also forced to give up its dominant role in Korea and accept Koreaís incorporation into Japan in 1910.


The fall of Manchu dynasty and Chinese revolution of 1911-1912, led to further territorial losses. In 1911 Russia established her protectorate over Uryankhai (Tuva) while Outer Mongolia, Tibet and Xinqiang became de-facto independent.


As a result of armed conflicts with the former Manchu dependencies, the Republic of China by 1914 managed to absorb Ching-hai, as well as parts of Mongolia (Inner Mongolia) and Tibet (inner Tibet).