AXIS Plans for the South Caucasus: 1941-1945




  TERRITORIAL ASPECT” by Andrew Andersen and George Partskhaladze)





Soon after the beginning of Russian Campaign (1941-46), following the Axis plans for the dismemberment of the USSR and creation of new satellite-states on its territory, the “Liberation Committees” of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were formed in Berlin. Those Committees regarded by the Nazi leadership as embryonic governments of the future satellite-states of Germany, since April 15, 1942, were granted the status of “full-right allies” of the Third Reich[1]. During the “Battle for the Caucasus” also known as the “Operation Edelweiss”(1942-43) when the Axis occupation of the South Caucasus became a real possibility, the ”Liberation Committees” of the three nations of the South Caucasus and the North Caucasia received a directive from Adolf Hitler to resolve their territorial disputes. As a result of quite heated talks, the leaders of the Caucasus collaborators agreed on the following terms:


  • Armenia was supposed to gain Nakhichevan and all of the Mountainous Karabakh (including North Artsakh) and a small part of Javakheti (Akhalkalaki district of Georgia)
  • Georgia was to receive the imperial districts if Sochi  and Zakatala, lost in 1919-1921 to Russia and Azerbaijan
  • For al territorial concessions to Armenia and Georgia, Azerbaijan was to be compensated by the most of Daghestan where Azeri-Turkish language was lingua franca (later it was replaced in that capacity by Russian)[2]


Armenian and Georgian “Liberation Committees” (AONK and GNK) were also given promises by Alfred Rosenberg that in case of Axis invasion of Turkey, Armenia would be granted Western Armenia and Cilicia while Georgia was supposed to receive parts of the historical Paryadria (The Empire of Trebizonde)[3].


The defeat of the Axis powers in 1945 put an end to the above virtual projects (see the below map for details).









[1] J. Hoffmann, Kaukasien 1942/43: Das deutsche Heer und die Orientvoelker der Sowietunion (Freiburg, 1991), p. 356


[2] E. Abramian, Zabytyj Legion (Yerevan, 2005), p. 37


[3] Ibid., p. 38