Shortly after the republic (of Georgia
– Ed.) was founded, conflict with the Armenia broke out over the border
regions of Akhalkalaki, Borchalu, and Lori.
The Armeno-Georgian marchlands had been held at various times by the
Armenians, and Georgians, but in the nineteenth century (and even more during
World War I), the Muslim population had been reduced and refugees from the
Turkish massacres swelled the Armenian population. With withdrawal of Turkish
armies from Transcaucasia, Georgian forces
occupied parts of northern Lori and Akhalkalaki, and Armenians moved into
southern Lori and Pambak. Efforts at a peaceful solution to the territorial
dispute failed, and in December 1918 fighting commenced.