Charles E. Ziegler


The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations
Frank W. Thackeray and John E. Findling, Series Editors
Greenwood Press / Westport, Connecticut London / 1999






Glossary of Selected Terms




Bolsheviks: "Majority" faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party, led by Vladimir Lenin.

Later became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union


boyars: nobility of early Russia


Duma: Russian parliament 1905-1917 and 1993-present


Eurasianism: worldview which stresses Russian distinctiveness from Europe


glasnost: "publicity" or "openness"-- Gorbachev era liberalization of publishing and speech to provide more in-
formation to policy makers


Golden Horde: powerful Mongol khanate, or principality, of thirteenth-fifteenth century, located between the Black
Sea and the Ural Mountains, to which Russia paid tribute


Gosplan: Soviet State Planning Committee; organized the Soviet national economy


icons: religious paintings of Orthodox saints and the Holy Family, usually done in tempera on wood


Izvestiia: official newspaper of the Soviet government


KGB: Committee for State Security--Soviet secret police


khanate: Central Asian territory, ruled by a Mongol or Turkish khan


kolkhoz: Soviet collective farm, in which peasants received a portion of the farm's annual income


Komsomol: Communist Youth League, to socialize youth ages 15-28 into communist values


kremlin: walled stone fortress in the center of a city. Moscow's Kremlin houses government offices, churches, and


mafia: Russian term for hundreds of criminal gangs that sprang up after the Soviet collapse that have close
links to business and government


Mensheviks: "minority" faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party, led by Pavel Martov


muzhik: Russian peasant; also used as "a real man"


Narodniki: nineteenth-century Russian populists who "went to the people"


Nomenklatura: list of names held by Soviet Communist Party of individuals politically acceptable for appointment to
high positions


perestroika: Mikhail Gorbachev's program of economic and political restructuring


Politburo: political bureau of the Soviet Communist Party; high est decision-making body of the Soviet era


Pravda: official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union


Presidium: the Politburo was called the Presidium IN 1952-65


Slavophiles: nineteenth-century intellectuals who held up Russian culture as morally superior to West European culture


sovkhoz: Soviet state farm, in which peasants were paid a salary

sovnarkozy: regional economic councils, an attempt ( 1957-1965) by Khrushchev to decentralize economic management


soviet: "council"--revolutionary era radical assembly of intellectuals, workers, and soldiers. Became the basis for
Soviet era government organizations


Sudebnik: law codes of 1497 and 1550


ulozhenie: a law code of 1649


veche: town meeting of ancient Kievan Russia


Westernizers: nineteenth-century intellectual movement that urged Russians to adopt Western political and cultural



zemstvos: local government organizations, 1864-1917


zhdanovshchina: purge of all foreign influences in late Stalin period ( 1946-1948) led by Leningrad Party Secretary Andrei

Zhdanov. Anti-Western and anti-Semitic


CHARLES E. ZIEGLER is Professor and Chair of the Political Science Department at the University of Louisville. He is the author of Foreign Policy and East Asia ( 1993), Environmental Policy in the USSR ( 1987), and dozens of scholarly articles and book chapters.