Moldova - Early History II
beginning of the 17th century, Moldova
became an arena of a series of wars between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
and the Ottomans over control of the Balkans. Starting from the early-18th
century the princes of Moldova
were appointed by the Ottomans from the Phanariotes,
influential Greek magnates from Constantinople
(İstanbul), rather than the local nobility.
In 1774 the
Moldova became a Russian
protectorate while remaining formally a vassal of the Ottoman
Empire. In 1792 the Treaty of Iasi
forced the Ottoman Empire to cede all of its
holdings in what is now Transnistria to the Russian
Treaty of Bucharest following the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812), the Ottoman
Empire ceded the Eastern half of the Principality of Moldova Russia and Bukovina to Austria. The Russian part of Moldova was then named Bessarabia.
Prior to 1812, the name was used only for its south-eastern sector which had already
been under direct Ottoman control since 1484.
In 1821 a
revolt overthrew the unpopular Phanariote regime in Yasi and, after political and economic reforms were
implemented with Russian support, a constitution, the Règlement
Organique, was adopted in 1832.
At the end
of the Crimea War, in 1856, by the Treaty of Paris, two districts of southern
Bessarabia were returned to Moldova
thus depriving Russia of the
access to the Danube river.
the remaining Moldovan territory west of the Prut River
was united with Walachia. And in the same
year, Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected prince of Walachia and the part of Moldova that lay west of the Prut River,
laying the foundations of modern Romania. These two regions were
united in 1861.
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Moldova - Beginning of the
In 1917, during World
War I and the Bolshevik Revolution, political a Romanian nationalist movement started to develop in
Bessarabia. In the chaos brought by the
Russian revolution of October 1917, a National Council (Sfatul
Ţării) was established in Bessarabia, with
120 members elected from Bessarabia and 10
elected from Transnistria (the left shore of the
river Dnister, partially inhabited by ethnic
Moldavians/Romanians). On December 2, 1917, the National Council declared Bessarabia the independent Democratic Moldovan
Republic, federated with Russia.
In December 13, Romanian troops entered the area. In February 1918, the new republic declared its complete
independence from Russia
and, two months later, voted to unite with Romania, thus angering the Russian
France, UK and other Western countries recognized Bessarabia’s incorporation into Romania in 1919 at Paris Peace
Conference. The government of the Soviet Russia (and later, the USSR) never
accepted that decision and kept considering Bessarabia
their own territory under temporary Romanian ocupation.
the creation of the Soviet Union in December 1922, the Soviet government moved
in 1924 to establish the Moldavian Autonomous Oblast on land east of the Nistru River in the Ukrainian Soviet
Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR). The capital of the oblast was
at Balta (Balta, in
Ukrainian), in present-day Ukraine.
Seven months later, the oblast was upgraded to the Moldavian Autonomous
ASSR), even though its population was only 30 percent ethnic Romanian. The
capital remained at Balta until 1929, when it was
moved to Tiraspol (Tiraspol', in Russian).
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